Trades Access Common Core Competency B-2: Describe Expectations and Responsibilities of Employers and Employees – 2nd Edition

Trades Access Common Core Competency B-2: Describe Expectations and Responsibilities of Employers and Employees – 2nd Edition

Line B: Employability Skills

Camosun College


Victoria, B.C.



Accessibility Statement

BCcampus Open Education believes that education must be available to everyone. This means supporting the creation of free, open, and accessible educational resources. We are actively committed to increasing the accessibility and usability of the textbooks we produce.

Accessibility of This Textbook

The web version of this resource has been designed to meet Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0, level AA. In addition, it follows all guidelines in Appendix A: Checklist for Accessibility of the Accessibility Toolkit – 2nd Edition. It includes:

Accessibility Checklist
Element Requirements Pass?
Headings Content is organized under headings and subheadings that are used sequentially. Yes
Images Images that convey information include alternative text descriptions. These descriptions are provided in the alt text field, in the surrounding text, or linked to as a long description. Yes
Images Images and text do not rely on colour to convey information. Yes
Images Images that are purely decorative or are already described in the surrounding text contain empty alternative text descriptions. (Descriptive text is unnecessary if the image doesn’t convey contextual content information.) Yes
Tables Tables include row and/or column headers that have the correct scope assigned. Yes
Tables Tables include a title or caption. Yes
Tables Tables do not have merged or split cells. Yes
Tables Tables have adequate cell padding. Yes
Links The link text describes the destination of the link. Yes
Links Links do not open new windows or tabs. If they do, a textual reference is included in the link text. Yes
Links Links to files include the file type in the link text. Yes
Audio All audio content includes a transcript that includes all speech content and relevant descriptions of non-speech audio and speaker names/headings where necessary. Yes
Video All videos include high-quality (i.e., not machine generated) captions of all speech content and relevant non-speech content. No
Video All videos with contextual visuals (graphs, charts, etc.) are described audibly in the video. Yes
Font Font size is 12 point or higher for body text. Yes
Font Font size is 9 point for footnotes or endnotes. Yes
Font Font size can be zoomed to 200% in the webbook or eBook formats. Yes

Known Accessibility Issues and Areas for Improvement

Although the videos do not have captions, they do all have transcripts provided immediately underneath. People who read the transcript and people who watch the video will get the same information.

Let Us Know if You are Having Problems Accessing This Book

We are always looking for ways to make our textbooks more accessible. If you have problems accessing this textbook, please contact us to let us know so we can fix the issue.

Please include the following information:

You can contact us one of the following ways:

This statement was last updated on November 1, 2021.

The Accessibility Checklist table was adapted from one originally created by the Rebus Community and shared under a CC BY 4.0 License.


For Students: How to Access and Use this Textbook

This textbook is available in the following formats:

For more information about the accessibility of this textbook, see the Accessibility Statement.

You can access the online webbook and download any of the formats for free here: Trades Access Common Core Competency B-2: Describe Expectations and Responsibilities of Employers and Employees. To download the book in a different format, look for the “Download this book” drop-down menu and select the file type you want.

How can I use the different formats?
Format Internet required? Device Required apps Accessibility Features Screen reader compatible
Online webbook Yes Computer, tablet, phone An Internet browser (Chrome, Firefox, Edge, or Safari) WCAG 2.0 AA compliant, option to enlarge text, and compatible with browser text-to-speech tools, videos with captions Yes
PDF No Computer, print copy Adobe Reader (for reading on a computer) or a printer Ability to highlight and annotate the text. If reading on the computer, you can zoom in. Unsure
EPUB No Computer, tablet, phone eReader app (EPUB) Option to enlarge text, change font style, size, and colour. Unsure
HTML No Computer, tablet, phone An Internet browser (Chrome, Firefox, Edge, or Safari) WCAG 2.0 AA compliant and compatible with browser text-to-speech tools. Yes

Tips for Using This Textbook

Webbook vs. All Other Formats

The webbook includes an audio version of the text embedded at the beginning of each chapter as well as a number of videos. If you are not using the webbook to access this textbook, this content will not be included. Instead, your copy of the text will provided a link to where you can listen to that content online. The audio version can also be accessed online here: Line B2 Audio Book.

The webbook also includes video, which will not be included in the other formats. Instead, other formats will provide a link to where you can watch that content online plus a transcript of the video so you can read it instead.

Even if you decide to use a PDF or a print copy to access the textbook, you can access the webbook and download any other formats at any time.


About BCcampus Open Education

Trades Access Common Core Competency B-2: Describe Expectations and Responsibilities of Employers and Employees by Camosun College was funded by BCcampus Open Education.

BCcampus Open Education began in 2012 as the B.C. Open Textbook Project with the goal of making post-secondary education in British Columbia more accessible by reducing students’ costs through the use of open textbooks and other OER. BCcampus supports the post-secondary institutions of British Columbia as they adapt and evolve their teaching and learning practices to enable powerful learning opportunities for the students of B.C. BCcampus Open Education is funded by the British Columbia Ministry of Advanced Education and Skills Training and the Hewlett Foundation.

Open educational resources (OER) are teaching, learning, and research resources that, through permissions granted by the copyright holder, allow others to use, distribute, keep, or make changes to them. Our open textbooks are openly licensed using a Creative Commons licence and are offered in various eBook formats free of charge, or as printed books that are available at cost.

For more information about open education in British Columbia, please visit the BCcampus Open Education website. If you are an instructor who is using this book for a course, please fill out our Adoption of an Open Textbook form.


About the Book

In an effort to make this book a flexible resource for trainers and learners, the following features are included:

Second Edition Changes

In the Winter of 2020, work was done to revise and add content to this book that aligns both with the advancements in technology and the changing face of the skilled trades industry. These changes are predominantly focused on content in B2 through B4 and reflect the ongoing diversification of the trades, with a focus on the use of inclusive language in the text. In addition, this second edition provides more in-depth resources with regard to harassment, conflict resolution, employment-seeking strategies, mentorship, and effective communication skills. In addition, test material in the book was expanded upon to reflect the incorporation of the updated content.

History of the Trades Access Common Core Resources

The concept of identifying and creating resources for skills that are common to many trades has a long history in the Province of British Columbia. This collection of Trades Access Common Core (TACC) resources was adapted from the 15 Trades Common Core line modules co-published by the Industry Training and Apprenticeship Commission (ITAC) and the Centre for Curriculum Transfer and Technology (C2T2) in 2000-2002. Those modules were revisions of the original Common Core portion of the TRAC modules prepared by the Province of British Columbia Ministry of Post-Secondary Education in 1986. The TACC resources are still in use by a number of trades programs today and, with the permission from the Industry Training Authority (ITA), have been utilized in this project.

These open resources have been updated and realigned to match many of the line and competency titles found in the Province of BC’s trades apprenticeship program outlines. A review was carried out to analyze the provincial program outlines of a number of trades, with the intent of finding common entry-level learning tasks that could be assembled into this package. This analysis provided the template for the outline used to update the existing modules. Many images found in ITA apprentice training modules were also incorporated into these resources to create books that are similar to what students will see when they continue their chosen trades training. The project team has also taken many new photographs for this project, which are available for use in other trades training resources.

The following list of lines and competencies was generated with the goal of creating an entry-level trades training resource, while still offering the flexibility for lines to be used as stand-alone books. This flexibility—in addition to the textbook content being openly licensed—allows these resources to be used within other contexts as well. For example, instructors or institutions may incorporate these resources into foundation-level trades training programming or within an online learning management system (LMS).

Safety Advisory

Be advised that references to the Workers’ Compensation Board of British Columbia safety regulations contained within these materials do not/may not reflect the most recent Occupational Health and Safety Regulation. The current Standards and Regulation in BC can be obtained at from the WorkSafeBC website.

Please note that it is always the responsibility of any person using these materials to inform themself about the Occupational Health and Safety Regulation pertaining to their area of work.


The materials in the Trades Access Common Core open textbook are for use by students and instructional staff and have been compiled from sources believed to be reliable and to represent best current opinions on these subjects. These manuals are intended to serve as a starting point for good practices and may not specify all minimum legal standards. No warranty, guarantee, or representation is made by BCcampus as to the accuracy or sufficiency of the information contained in these publications. These manuals are intended to provide basic guidelines for trade practices. Do not assume, therefore, that all necessary warnings and safety precautionary measures are contained in this module and that other or additional measures may not be required.

Symbols Legend

Important icon. Important: This icon highlights important information.

Poisonous icon. Poisonous: This icon is a reminder for a potentially toxic/poisonous situation.

Resources icon. Resources: The resource icon highlights any required or optional resources.

Flammable icon. Flammable: This icon is a reminder for a potentially flammable situation.

Self-test icon. Self-test: This icon reminds you to complete a self-test.

Explosive icon. Explosive: This icon is a reminder for a possibly explosive situation.

Safety gear icon. Safety gear: The safety gear icon is an important reminder to use protective equipment.

Electric shock icon. Electric shock: This icon is a reminder for potential electric shock.

Media Attributions



Click play on the following audio player to listen along as you read this section.

Thumbnail for the embedded element "Introduction"

A BCcampus element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

As you enter the workforce, it is important to understand the major trends in employment and how to find this information. In this competency, we’ll look at some of the current major trends in employment in Canada and British Columbia. This review includes an overview of the economy, skills that employers look for, and employee expectations. We’ll also look at effective strategies for entering the labour market and finding a job.

In general, employers look for and hire individuals who they believe will be a good fit for their company, in both the short and long term. This includes hiring individuals who have both the “hard” and “soft” skills they desire. Your hard skills are skills that you have accomplished or have credentials for, such as a trade certificate, WHMIS, first aid training, or proficiency in a foreign language. Your soft skills, sometimes referred to as “people skills,” are those you acquire through your education and life experiences. Examples of soft skills include effective communication, problem-solving ability, flexibility, creativity, customer service skills, and the ability to work with others. These skills are necessary to keep a company or organization competitive and able to adapt to changes in the workplace. As a tradesperson, having the appropriate trades qualifications will get your résumé in the review pile, but it is all of the additional soft skills you possess that will help get you an interview and determine whether you are the right candidate for an employer.

Learning Objectives

When you have completed the Learning Tasks in this Competency, you should be able to:

  • describe the trends affecting employment in the Canadian and British Columbia economies
  • describe employer expectations and job satisfaction
  • describe respect in the workplace
  • describe how to maintain healthy customer and co-worker relations
  • describe stress management techniques
  • describe effective problem solving and decision making
  • describe effective job-search strategies
  • create a cover letter and résumé


Resources icon.You will be required to reference publications and videos available online.

Media Attributions


Learning Task 2: Employer Expectations and Job Satisfaction

Click play on the following audio player to listen along as you read this section.

Thumbnail for the embedded element "Learning Task 2: Employer Expectation and Job Satisfaction"

A BCcampus element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

As a new employee, you need to know what your employer’s expectations at work are. A large part of these expectations should be provided to you as part of the interview process, whether it is through the questions your employer asks or information that is conveyed directly to you. During the interview, be sure to jot down any questions you may have for your employer regarding expectations and remember to ask them at the end of your interview. This will allow you to make an informed decision about working for the company if you are offered a position.

Once you arrive at your new job, your employer or another employee of the company should put you through an orientation process. If it is a large company, you may be one of several people in this process, or in a smaller organization it could be as simple as a one-on-one conversation with your supervisor that may be supplemented by written information. Again, be sure to keep track of any questions you may have and ask them at the appropriate time, and always ask where you should go if you have additional questions following the orientation.

Knowing what is expected of you and who you should turn to for additional information will help reduce stress and allow you to be a more effective worker.

Additional employer expectations may also be conveyed at any point during your employment (e.g., when a new manager or supervisor is hired), so it is important to pay attention and ask for clarification as required.

What Employers Want in an Employee

Employers want individuals who have the necessary skills to perform the job and be able to adapt to changes in the workplace. This includes both hard and soft skills.

Hard skills are credentials and other skills that you have mastered. These include diplomas, certificates, and/or credentials that attest to your competencies and ability to perform certain tasks, such as a Red Seal in carpentry, a WMHIS certificate, a FOODSAFE Level 1 certificate, or a certificate of qualification for Steamfitter Level 1. Hard skills also include skills for which you may not have a formal certificate but have reached a level of competency, such as working knowledge of a foreign language or Microsoft Office.

Soft skills are your “people skills” and include attributes such as being:

What Workers Expect from Their Employers

Employees want many of the same things as their employers, including:

Younger workers and graduates also have a greater concern for:

The ability of employers to accommodate some of these expectations is also tied to the individual occupation and whether greater flexibility is feasible. For example, working from home and setting your own hours is not feasible for a carpenter on a large construction site, but it may be feasible for an electrician to work as a subcontractor in the evenings for a small company that provides service to residential clients.

Meeting Expectations

During your interview and again after you are hired, your employer will go through the expectations for the job, and it is important that you meet these expectations once you begin to work.

Communication is central to meeting expectations, on the part of both the employer and the employee. It is important to be an active listener, ask questions when you are unsure, and be proactive when you need more information. In small companies, you may be dealing with only one or two people. In larger companies, you may be provided with written information regarding policies, procedures, and workplace orientations, and you may be dealing with several different people or departments. For example, you may have to interact with your direct supervisor, human resources, the environmental safety officer, and your union shop steward.

Punctuality and attendance

Being punctual and showing up for work are not optional. Failing to show up where and when expected is one of the easiest ways for your supervisor and co-workers to lose confidence in your abilities. They rely on you to be at work or on a job site, and your absence can adversely affect the company in several ways: for example, not meeting schedules, additional financial costs, increasing the workload of your co-workers, and damaging a relationship with a client who expects a job to be completed. For an employee, being late or not showing up can also result in a loss of wages, a verbal or written warning from the supervisor, not passing probation, negative feedback on job evaluations, lack of promotions or raises, or the loss of a job.

It is important that you keep to the work schedule assigned. Whenever possible, provide your employer with sufficient notice if you need to take time off or if there are any issues that could affect your work schedule. For example, if a health or family issue requires you to take a few days off or make you late, discuss the situation with your supervisor to see if a solution can be found. If an absence or lateness can’t be avoided, make sure that you communicate with your supervisor and co-workers as soon as possible so that they know that you are delayed and are on your way or that you will be absent.

Time management

Conducting personal business and wasting time during working hours costs an employer time and money. Try to adhere to your lunch hours and breaks at all times. Keep up to date with your schedule and the activities that you should be accomplishing during your workday. If you need help, use a smart phone application or a handwritten schedule to keep track of your time and  commitments.

Work ethic

Doing the job right means doing it correctly, working neatly, handling equipment and materials properly, and working safely. When a job is done correctly it will look good and function well for many years and be a testament to your skills and work ethic. It can also help build the reputation of a company and attract new and repeat clients. A job done wrong costs an employer money to redo it, can lead to significant delays in schedule, be a source of conflict with clients, and be detrimental to a company’s ability to attract new customers.

A neat and organized job site pleases both customers and employers. If you are working for a client, it is important to demonstrate respect for their workplace and possessions. Keeping a neat worksite provides them with a level of confidence regarding your personal work habits and also reduces the risk of accident.

Proper handling and use of equipment and materials is also integral to performing the job right. If you are using a new piece of equipment or new materials, do your homework. Read up on how to use these items and discuss it with your supervisor. Proper usage of equipment reduces the chance of injury and minimizes waste. Knowing how to use new materials eliminates waste and ensures that the materials are installed according to manufacturer specifications.

Finally, safety on the job site is a top priority for all employers. Following workplace safety regulations and rules increases not only your safety but also that of your co-workers. It is important to be proactive and know where all of the safety features are at a job site, such as fire extinguishers, fire exits, and first aid kits. It is also important to wear all required PPE, and exchange damaged or improperly fitting PPE for new or properly fitting PPE. It is important to acknowledge that safety on the job is not just limited to physical safety; psychological safety is also a consideration for workers due to bullying and harassment if you witness or are the target of bullying or harassment it is important to speak up. If you see an unsafe condition or a safety violation, you can prevent accidents by doing something about it immediately. If you find a safety hazard, take action in one or more of the following ways:

Self-test icon.Now complete the Learning Task Self-Test.


Self-Test 2

  1. Where do most employers convey their expectations of potential employees?
    1. On their website
    2. In the job posting
    3. In the interview process
    4. In their employee handbook
  2. Employers want individuals with the skills to perform the job now and adapt to changes in the future.
    1. True
    2. False
  3. Which of the following is not a hard skill?
    1. Having FOODSAFE Level 1 certificate
    2. Being fluently bilingual (English-French)
    3. The ability to work well under pressure
    4. Having the Red Seal endorsement in carpentry
  4. Which of the following is not a soft skill?
    1. Enthusiasm
    2. Being a lifelong learner
    3. Being fluently bilingual (English-French)
    4. The ability to work well under pressure
  5. Employee expectations are very different from employer expectations.
    1. True
    2. False
  6. Which of the following concerns is most expressed by recent graduates and younger workers?
    1. Good salaries and benefits
    2. Respect in the workplace and recognition
    3. Equal treatment and a safe working environment
    4. Increased flexibility, entrepreneurship, and work-life balance
  7. Communication is central to meeting expectations on the part of the employer and employee.
    1. True
    2. False
  8. Which of the following do employers expect from their workers?
    1. Effective time management
    2. Strong work ethic, punctuality, and attendance
    3. All of the above
    4.  None of the above
  9. Which of the following does a strong work ethic not include?
    1. Safety on the job site
    2. A neat and organized job site
    3. Ability to determine your working hours
    4. Proper handling and use of equipment and materials
  10. Bullying and harassment is a safety issue on the job site that should be reported immediately.
    1. True
    2. False

See the Answer Key in the back matter of the textbook for self-test answers.

Media Attributions


Learning Task 3: Respect in the Workplace

Click play on the following audio player to listen along as you read this section.

Thumbnail for the embedded element "Learning Task 3: Respect in the Workplace"

A BCcampus element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

Contributing to A Respectful Workplace

All workers are responsible for their own conduct and ensuring that they maintain a respectful workplace. Employers are responsible for ensuring that they take all reasonable steps to ensure the health and safety of their workers in a workplace that is free from bullying and harassment. Employers that indenture apprentices are also responsible for ensuring that their apprentices are provided learning opportunities to continue their growth in their field.

Workers also have a responsibility to others in keeping the workplace respectful.  This means that as workers if you witness inappropriate behaviors towards others, you need to know how to intervene to create a safe space for your co-workers.  This is often referred to as “being more than a bystander,” a bystander is someone who stands by and watches as things unfold.  The consequences of being a bystander can be potentially detrimental to someone physically or psychologically.  Imagine this; you witness a serious car accident, but rather than calling 911 and getting help for those involved, you watch the situation unfold and maybe even take a picture.  The consequences in this example are quite obvious, however in some cases where they may not be as blatant, it is still important to consider the impact on those involved.  The act of being more than a bystander is intervening in a way that either diffuses the situation or helps to remove the target of the inappropriate behaviour from the situation.  These situations can vary from physical threats, to harassment, to racist or sexist comments or more.

Interventions can be achieved in a number of different ways including:

Larger companies and governmental organizations will normally have new employee orientations (in person or online) as well as employee manuals or specific codes of conduct regarding what is expected in the workplace. Smaller companies may not have these formalized tools, but they are still subject to the same federal and provincial legislation put in place to ensure respect in the workplace. Individuals who violate these laws may be subject to discipline by their employer, up to and including termination of employment, and/or legal prosecution.

Unconscious Bias

In creating a respectful workplace, we must consider things that may affect our ability to engage with our co-workers in a respectful manner.  One of the most impactful driving forces in our interactions with others is something called unconscious bias. Unconscious bias is a preconceived notion that we may form about a group of people or a person without consciously recognizing it, this notion can be either positive or negative but typically is negative. These quick conclusions formed in our brains automatically are formed out of personal experiences and background. Theses prejudices or stereotypes can impact the way we interact and navigate personal communications with people.  In order to create a respectful and inclusive workplace we must learn to recognize our own unconscious biases and question as to what impact they will have in our responses to others and situations. It is important to pause and reflect on your unconscious biases before interacting with others.


A respectful workplace is a place where employees are:

The following behaviours and attitudes are not acceptable:


The following legislation governs acceptable behaviour.

Guidelines for Your Own Behaviour

To ensure that your behaviour promotes a respectful workplace, consider the following:

Self-test icon.Now complete the Learning Task Self-Test.


Self-Test 3

  1. All individuals are responsible for their own conduct and ensuring that they maintain a respectful workplace.
    1. True
    2. False
  2. It is not the responsibility of the employer to ensure that reasonable steps are taken to ensure health and safety in the workplace.
    1. True
    2. False
  3. It is not the responsibility of the employer to ensure that the workplace is free from bullying and harassment.
    1. True
    2. False
  4. What is included in a respectful workplace?
    1. Inappropriate behaviour is not addressed.
    2. No jokes are made and everyone is very serious.
    3. Friendships between employees are discouraged.
    4. Individuals are considerate, inclusive, and supportive of one another.
  5. When is a joke not a joke?
    1. When it is inappropriate and doesn’t belong in a workplace.
    2. When it is hurtful or derogatory to another individual or group of individuals.
    3. All of the above
    4. None of the above
  6. How do you promote a respectful workplace?
    1. Keep to yourself and don’t cause any problems.
    2. If you see or hear something that is inappropriate, forget about it.
    3. Consider the impact of words or actions and how they affect others.
    4. Monitor and report on other people’s communications and behaviours.
  7. Which of the following is/are way(s) to be more than a bystander?
    1. Taking attention off the target
    2. Confronting the behaviour
    3. Finding assistance to intervene
    4. All of the above
  8. Sexual harassment is any conduct of a sexual nature that is unwanted or unwelcome.
    1. True
    2. False
  9. Unconscious bias is a preconceived notion that we may form about a group of people or a person that we consciously realize we have.
    1. True
    2. False
  10. Gender-based harassment is any behaviour that
    1. Polices women’s bodies
    2. Polices and reinforces traditional heterosexual gender norms
    3. Is overt and obvious to all employees of a company
    4. Only negatively impacts female employees

See the Answer Key in the back matter of the textbook for self-test answers.

Media Attributions


Learning Task 4: Maintain Relations

Click play on the following audio player to listen along as you read this section.

Thumbnail for the embedded element "Learning Task 4: Maintain Relations"

A BCcampus element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

Working with others is an essential skill and integral to almost every job. The individuals you work with may be your co-workers, customers, or a combination of the two. If you remember to always treat people with respect and in the manner that you wish to be treated, you should be able to deal effectively with customer and co-worker relations. If relationships are new, it is always important to take the time to slowly build that relationship, whether it is face to face or online.

It is much better to take a more conservative approach when establishing new relationships in the workplace than to be too familiar with a stranger. If you are working in a team environment, learning to understand the synergy of the group is important, as is ensuring that your group environment is welcoming to new staff members, visitors, and clients.

Workplaces benefit from cohesive working environments fostered by good employee relations.  When employees treat each other with respect, communicate with each other effectively, work together as a team and appreciate the contributions of their colleagues, productivity and job satisfaction are increased as a result.  Inclusion of others in the workplace helps to make everyone feel like part of the team.  Sometimes we may not know how to include a new co-worker, especially if we perceive they are different than us, this is likely because of our unconscious biases. Recognizing these biases, our privilege and any power dynamics that may be present, along with practicing inclusive behaviours goes a long way in developing good working relationships.  Some examples of inclusive behaviours are greeting others genuinely, employing good listening skills, speaking up if someone is being excluded, recognizing, and addressing misunderstandings, engaging positively with other people’s ideas and feelings and validating other’s concerns.  Focusing on cultivating and maintaining a good workplace dynamic is important to everyone’s success.

Co-worker Relationships

Effective co-worker relationships are built on respect and understanding. The following are just a few tips on how to develop and maintain healthy relationships in the workplace:

Client/Customer Relationships

The amount of interaction you have with clients or customers may vary significantly depending on your job. If you maintain respectful communication on the job site, it will go a long way to ensuring that your behaviour is appropriate for co-workers, supervisors, and clients who may be on site.

When dealing with clients, always follow these guidelines:

Now complete the Learning Task Self-Test.Self-test icon.


Self-Test 4

  1. Working with others is an essential skill and is integral to almost every job.
    1. True
    2. False
  2. Healthy working relationships and teams have no impact on productivity.
    1. True
    2. False
  3. Relationships and trust between co-workers and clients are built over time.
    1. True
    2. False
  4. What are relationships with co-workers built upon?
    1. Common objectives
    2. Conflict and resolution
    3. Respect and understanding
    4. Common interests and backgrounds
  5. Social media (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) can have an impact on your career and should be used with caution.
    1. True
    2. False
  6. What does “owning your own mistake” not include?
    1. Taking sole responsibility for a decision made by a colleague or team
    2. Recognizing when you have made an error and informing your superior
    3. Inadvertently saying something inappropriate or hurting someone’s feelings and apologizing
    4. Acknowledging the mistake and thinking of how the situation could have been handled better in the future
  7. The style of communication used should be the same for all individuals in a company, regardless of their title or position.
    1. True
    2. False
  8. How should communication with your clients be conducted?
    1. Friendly and similar to that of fellow employees
    2. Minimal unless otherwise directed by your supervisor
    3. Mindful of the business relationship and respectful at all times
    4. Directed specifically to work and areas where you have responsibility
  9. How should customer requests and complaints be handled?
    1. Acted upon immediately
    2. Directed immediately to your supervisor
    3. Listened to and fully researched before bringing them forward to a superior
    4. Listened to, documented, and brought forward to the appropriate individual according to company policy and procedures
  10. Greeting others genuinely, employing good listening skills, speaking up if someone is being excluded, recognizing, and addressing misunderstandings, engaging positively with other people’s ideas and feelings and validating other’s concerns, are all examples of _________________ behaviours:
    1. Harassment
    2. Bystander
    3. Inclusive
    4. Exclusive

See the Answer Key in the back matter of the textbook for self-test answers.

Media Attributions


Learning Task 5: Stress Management Techniques

Click play on the following audio player to listen along as you read this section.

Thumbnail for the embedded element "Learning Task 5: Stress Management"

A BCcampus element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

Stress is the emotional or physical reaction to pressure, demands, or change. It is an everyday part of both work and home life. Working in skilled trades can be stressful because of the long work hours, exposure to new job sites, dealing with new co-workers and clients, working in confined spaces that may be noisy and physically demanding, responding to challenging assignments, and meeting tight deadlines. Being able to manage your stress level is integral to your growth as a human being and as a skilled and competent employee and co-worker.

Managing Stress

Here are some tips to help you manage your stress levels at work:

Signs of unhealthy stress levels

Too much stress is damaging to your health and well-being. It can also increase the stress levels of your co-workers, family, or friends. Very high levels of stress can affect you physically, mentally, or emotionally and have devastating consequences. Learning to identify the signs of unhealthy levels of stress in yourself or your colleagues is important. Some of these signs include:

If you are experiencing a number of these issues, make an appointment with a trained professional who can help you deal with the issue.

Reducing stress

To reduce your stress, you first need to know the acceptable level under which you can personally function. Some people thrive in high-pressure situations and may perform at their best under these conditions. Others require minimal stress and consistency to perform effectively.

Once you have determined the level acceptable for you, look at ways to reduce stress both at home and in the workplace. It is inevitable that unhealthy levels of stress will be carried from home to and from work if you don’t look for holistic solutions. For example, if you are fatigued on the job site, it’s important to reduce activities outside of work and try to rest more and catch up on missed sleep.

The following are some tips on how you can reduce stress in your life:

Dealing with Overwork

If you find yourself constantly working beyond your capacity, it is time to take a look at how you work to see if there is any room for improvement. Ask yourself the following questions, and answer them truthfully:

If you’ve examined your own working style, made improvements, and still cannot complete all of the work required within a workday, it may be time to discuss this issue further with your supervisor, as additional staff may be needed at critical points in the project.

Another area of overwork is working overtime. Most jobs have specific deadlines by which a task has to be completed, be it an office building under construction or the retrofit of a ship. Depending on the size and availability of the skilled workforce, working overtime may be an expectation of the employer on some job sites or projects. The issue will usually be brought up at the time of employment or at the start of a new project. If you are a unionized employee, there will be specific regulations covering overtime in your collective agreement. Individuals who are not unionized may also have company guidelines that explain overtime conditions and benefits that adhere to labour laws. In the absence of documents, the existing labour laws always take precedence. Working overtime on a regular basis can be very stressful, so it is important to factor this in when taking steps to reduce your stress level. For example, you may need to engage in fewer external activities, and be sure to get enough sleep, eat right, and exercise.

Self-test icon.Now complete the Learning Task Self-Test.


Self-Test 5

  1. Stress is not a part of normal life and should be addressed immediately.
    1. True
    2. False
  2. Stress is emotional or physical tension resulting from difficult circumstances.
    1. True
    2. False
  3. Which of the following can cause stress?
    1. Working in confined spaces or noisy and physically demanding situations
    2. Working on new job sites with new clients and co-workers, or working overtime
    3. All of the above
    4. None of the above
  4. Being prepared can help you reduce your level of stress.
    1. True
    2. False
  5. The job site, co-workers, and clients are always the source of your stress.
    1. True
    2. False
  6. Being preoccupied or acting out on the job site can increase the risk of workplace accidents and be hazardous to you and your colleagues.
    1. True
    2. False
  7. How can you reduce stress related to your working conditions?
    1. Visit your doctor and ask for a medical leave of absence.
    2. Try to resolve it on your own without impacting your co-workers.
    3. Be assertive and discuss the issues with the appropriate individual(s).
    4. Keep a list of all of the things that occur on the job site that cause you and your colleagues stress.
  8. Too much stress is damaging to your health and well-being.
    1. True
    2. False
  9. What are some of the signs that a person has an unhealthy stress level?
    1. Fatigue, insomnia, or restlessness, and misusing alcohol, drugs, or food
    2. Significant changes in personality, inability to concentrate and make decisions, behavioural changes, or frequent mood swings
    3. All of the above
    4. None of the above
  10. What should you do if you have an unhealthy stress level?
    1. Discuss it with your supervisor.
    2. Discuss it with your friends and colleagues.
    3. Keep it a secret from your colleagues and supervisor.
    4. Seek help from a trained professional and get the help you need.
  11. The level of stress that can be handled by an individual differs from person to person.
    1. True
    2. False
  12. It is important to think about the level of stress you can handle when choosing a career.
    1. True
    2. False
  13. Which of the following is not an effective way to reduce stress?
    1. Exercise and eat right.
    2. Go to the bar and drink.
    3. Make sure you sleep an adequate amount of time each day.
    4. Be assertive and deal with issues as they arise rather keeping them inside.
  14. What should you do first if you are unable to keep up with your daily workload?
    1. Advise your supervisor that the workload is excessive.
    2. Discuss it with your friends and see if they have the same complaints.
    3. Gauge your performance on what other people are able to accomplish.
    4. Look at how you work and determine if there is room for improvement or increased efficiency.
  15.  Depending on your trade, employer, and job site, working overtime may be expected of employees.
    1. True
    2. False
  16. The issue of overtime is rarely addressed by a prospective employer in interviews.
    1. True
    2. False
  17. Both labour laws and collective agreements for unionized employees address overtime.
    1. True
    2. False
  18. A(n)  or mental health practitioner to help you navigate your stress and anxiety in a healthy way.
    1. Qualified counselor
    2. Close friend
    3. Instructor
    4. Online blog
  19. Many unions, schools and other organizations have specific supports in place for employees struggling with stress, anxiety, addictions, or mental health issues.
    1. True
    2. False
  20. Reorganizing tools and supplies at the job site to make things more readily available and easier to access is an example of a workplace solution to help improve performance.
    1. True
    2. False

See the Answer Key in the back matter of the textbook for self-test answers.

Media Attributions


Learning Task 6: Effective Problem Solving

Click play on the following audio player to listen along as you read this section.

Thumbnail for the embedded element "Learning Task 6: Effective Problem Solving"

A BCcampus element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

Effective problem solving is part of everyday life, whether at home or work. While the complexity of problems may increase as you rise in management or leadership positions, everyone in the workforce makes decisions on a daily basis.

Problem Solving

Here are some basic guidelines for solving problems:

Conflict Resolution

Conflicts are a natural part of life. We all have different values and beliefs that can shape our perceptions of the world, and these differences can often lead to misunderstandings and conflict. Conflict that is handled inappropriately can be detrimental to an individual’s health and can lead to increased stress. It can also have an effect on the daily functioning of an office and, if left unchecked, can even lead to a toxic work environment.

Conflicts largely fit into three main categories:

In large companies, the procedures for handling conflict are usually clearly documented in policies and procedures—from informal to formal complaint processes that may include mediation or arbitration. In small companies that have only a few workers, the steps for dealing with conflict may be less established, but the same skill sets apply.

Conflict resolution does not mean picking a winner and determining who is right and who is wrong. Instead, it should mean looking at a situation, gaining a better understanding of the different positions, and addressing the problem. You can learn the skills to deal with conflict in a constructive manner that enhances your decision making and contributes to effective working relationships.

Constructive conflict resolution is an opportunity for change, growth, and understanding. The most important quality in resolving a conflict is to avoid making judgments about other people and their statements. Instead, you need to be curious about different points of view.

For example, instead of thinking, “What a fool. How can they expect anyone to buy into this idea?” a constructive person thinks, “I wonder what they have in mind?”  When you make the shift from judgment to curiosity, following through with the appropriate question, others are not likely to feel defensive. They may be flattered that you are interested in their ideas. When people do not feel defensive, they are more likely to consider new ideas and cooperate.

Conflict resolution process

The steps in effective conflict resolution are as follows:

  1. Acknowledge that there is a conflict that needs to be resolved. Since each human being is different, interpretations of when there is a conflict can differ significantly. Being able to clearly articulate what the conflict is, is part of being able to discuss and resolve it.
  2. Create a neutral environment in which to discuss the issue. Choose a time and place that is convenient for both parties where there is minimal disruption. Make sure that both parties are in the right state of mind to participate in the discussion. When either or both parties are very upset or angry, it is best to wait until they have time to get control of their emotions. If this is not feasible, then it is important to acknowledge the other party’s feelings. This does not mean you have to agree with them.
  3. Set ground rules for your discussion. Agree to work together to find a solution to the problem. Agree to allow each other the opportunity to state their feelings free of interruption. The person speaking should avoid being confrontational, abusive, or inflammatory. Instead of accusing the other person, information should be expressed in terms of personal feelings. For example, instead of “you did this,” say “I felt this.” The person listening should focus on trying to understand what the other person is saying and not on their own feelings or rebuttal. Once a speaker is finished, take the opportunity to ask questions that may help resolve the question. Both parties should be mindful of body language and tone of voice.
  4. Stay focused on individual and shared needs. Find out what each person hopes to resolve from the situation and make this the basis of discussion. It is easy to go into other issues if you are uncertain of what your goals are.
  5. Don’t make it personal. Identify your own unconscious biases and feelings before you enter into the conflict resolution process.  If you have a good idea of the emotion you are feeling, you will enter the resolution more aware of what is fueling your reaction to the conflict. Keep any preconceptions about the other person out of it, never make decisions based on assumptions.
  6. Use good communication techniques. Model effective listening skills by making good eye contact, nodding and echoing back what the other person has said.  Communicate assertively, be direct, calm and honest about the situation.
  7. Keep your safety in mind. If for any reason things escalate or you feel unsafe, walk away and find someone you trust to assist you with resolution.  It is also important to recognize if you feel that there may be a risk of escalation, choose a place to discuss the conflict that is easy to leave from, an open area or somewhere with multiple exits.
  8. Stay positive. Look at the resolution of this conflict as an opportunity to learn new skills. Focusing on the negative is counterproductive.
  9. Take a moment to consider what the other person has said and what you may not have considered before responding.  This prevents a reactive response which can be emotional.
  10. Make sure you have all the facts. A significant amount of conflict stems from miscommunication.  If you feel as though you need more clarification or you do not understand something the other person has said, ask them to clarify.  Be prepared to also clarify anything you have said to ensure there is no confusion.
  11. Generate options. Depending on the type of conflict and the individuals brought in to help resolve the conflict, the options may vary significantly. Brainstorm and think of ways the issue can be resolved. Be respectful of other people’s ideas and enjoy the process.
  12. Set goals and develop an action plan. Depending on the issues being discussed, you may be able to immediately agree on one item that can be resolved, or you may identify several goals with a long-term action plan that may involve other participants. Resolution may require additional meetings and discussions between the individuals involved in the conflict.
  13. Make a mutual benefit agreement. Both (or all) parties need to agree to a decision that they can accept; that is, a “win-win” situation rather than a compromise that neither party is happy with.
  14. End on good terms. This is essential for you to be able to work collaboratively again in the future and resolve any other conflicts that may arise.

Sometimes conflict cannot be resolved through a mutual benefit agreement, perhaps because either one or both of the parties can’t agree. In this case, there are two options. The first is to agree to live with the conflict or “agree to disagree.” This may work for minor conflicts, but if the problem is ongoing, it can grow in size and affect other employees and job productivity if it isn’t resolved.  This can lead to a toxic work environment, low morale and financial implications for the employer.

The second option is involving a mediator. This individual may be a supervisor (or supervisors if the parties are from two different departments), human resources staff member, and/or union representative.

Self-test icon. Now complete the Learning Task Self-Test.


Self-Test 6

  1. Who uses effective problem solving and decision making?
    1. Your client
    2. The project manager
    3. Your immediate supervisor
    4. Everyone. It is part of everyday life whether you are at home or at work.
  2. The first step to solving a problem is understanding the issue and not jumping to conclusions.
    1. True
    2. False
  3. Which of the following is not a step in problem solving?
    1. Determine how the decision will be made.
    2. Identify the issue and look for solutions to the problem.
    3. Determine how the solution will be put into place and monitored.
    4. Find out who is responsible for the problem so that you can assign blame.
  4. Conflict is a natural part of life.
    1. True
    2. False
  5. Unresolved conflict does not affect the workplace. It only affects the individual(s) involved.
    1. True
    2. False
  6. How can unresolved conflicts increase your stress level and affect your health?
    1. They contribute to hardening of the arteries.
    2. They cause high blood pressure and increase the risk of heart attacks.
    3. All of the above
    4. None of the above
  7. Conflict resolution means picking a winner and a loser.
    1. True
    2. False
  8. What are conflicts in the workplace usually based on?
    1. Resources, procedures, or practices
    2. Personal issues or interpersonal relationships
    3. All of the above
    4. None of the above
  9. You can reduce conflict in the workplace by being open minded and listening to other people’s ideas rather than passing judgment.
    1. True
    2. False
  10. Which of the following is not part of the conflict resolution process?
    1. Be positive.
    2. Acknowledge the conflict.
    3. Create a neutral environment for discussion.
    4. Be prepared for the worst and hope for the best.
  11. Identifying your own unconscious biases and feelings before you enter into the conflict resolution process is an example of which step of the conflict resolution process?
    1. End on good terms
    2. Stay positive
    3. Don’t make it personal
    4. Give yourself time to reflect
  12. If you are struggling to come up with a solution to a particularly challenging problem or something you are lacking in experience with, it is best to reach out to someone for assistance.
    1. True
    2. False
  13. Avoiding miscommunication is an example of which step of the conflict resolution process?
    1. Make sure you have all the facts
    2. Give yourself time to reflect
    3. Stay positive
    4. Don’t make it personal
  14. Taking a moment to consider what the other person has said and what you may not have considered before responding is an example of which step in the conflict resolution process?
    1. Make sure you have all the facts
    2. Give yourself time to reflect
    3. Use good communication techniques
    4. Don’t make it personal
  15. Modeling effective listening skills by making good eye contact, nodding and echoing back what the other person has said is an example of which step in the conflict resolution process?
    1. Stay positive
    2. Give yourself time to reflect
    3. Use good communication techniques
    4. Don’t make it personal

See the Answer Key in the back matter of the textbook for self-test answers.

Media Attributions


Learning Task 7: Job-Search Strategies

Click play on the following audio player to listen along as you read this section.

Thumbnail for the embedded element "Learning Task 7: Job Search Strategies"

A BCcampus element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

Very few people are lucky enough to find their “dream career job” right away. Typically, there are a series of decisions to make, experiences and qualifications to gain, and opportunities to consider in the world of work before landing that “one perfect job.”

When you are looking for a job, the importance of the first impression you make can never be overstated—whether it is in writing, over the phone, or in person. To land the job you desire, you need to make a good and lasting impression.

In this section, you will learn about job-search strategies from self-marketing through to the interview stage.

Uncovering Job Leads

The very first step toward securing a job is to find out who is hiring. Job leads come from two basic sources:

The Visible Job Market

Accessing job leads through the visible job market is generally straightforward. You may find jobs posted in local newspapers, online, company websites, or other sources such as career fairs or signs posted in storefronts. Occasionally employers will post openings at training institutions or ask to make a class presentation to potential employees.

If you are searching for work through the visible job market, keep in mind that effective reading skills are important to assessing job ads. Because advertising is expensive, most employers limit the size of their ads in order to reduce costs. To keep the ads short and to the point, employers often use jargon and abbreviations, which can make ads difficult to understand. Being able to understand job search vocabulary used in an ad will help narrow your options and find a fit that is right for you.

For example, you might come across a job ad that uses the abbreviation “a/p.” If you know that “a/p” means “accounts payable,” you might decide not to apply for the job because you don’t have any bookkeeping skills. You will save yourself a lot of time and effort by applying only for those positions for which you meet the minimum qualifications.

Sometimes employers provide a link in a job ad to their own website where the position may be described in more detail. Be sure to check this out, especially if you aren’t sure about any aspect of the job ad.

It is also important to be able to glean additional information from the ad’s that are posted.  To understand the poster’s use of language in ad’s will allow you to flag workplaces that may not be particularly open to hiring you based on their own biases or may be inexperienced in diverse hiring practices.  Ads posted looking for “Journeymen” are appealing only to a male audience by using gendered language, whereas ads that use gender neutral language such as “Journeyperson” show an inclusivity to all applicants.  If a female identified Journeyperson wanted to apply for the ad looking for “Journeymen,” they might choose to only put their first initial on their resume, so as not to face discriminatory hiring practices prior to obtaining an interview.    The language used in employment ads can provide us with hints towards our approach to applying for jobs.

Scanning job ads

Learning how to scan ads for appropriate job leads can also help to reduce the amount of time you spend reading employment sections in newspapers or searching online databases.

“Scanning” refers to the ability to read information very quickly by looking for keywords. By not reading every single word, you can review an ad efficiently.

When looking at job ads, scan for the following information:

Job category

Know what job categories to look in. You are more likely to find an entry-level trades position under categories such as “construction and skilled trades,” “general labour,” or “other.”

Job titles

Know the different titles commonly used for the type of job you are looking for. In the restaurant industry, employers may use the titles such as prep cook, line cook, or kitchen help. In construction, you may look for the terms labourer, apprentice, or apprentice levels 1, 2, 3, or 4.


Know the sections of town or regions that you’re willing to travel to.


Know your minimum job search parameters, including whether you want full-time, part-time, or casual employment. Be clear about your availability. Can you work evenings, weekends, and shift work?


Have a sense of your salary expectations, since wages are often advertised.

Special skills

Know what special skills you bring to the job and scan for them. For example, you may have industrial lift truck operator certification or first aid certification. Some online databases will even allow you to search by keywords.

Accessing the Hidden Job Market

Accessing the visible market may seem straightforward and the logical way to conduct a job search. But the more effective way to secure a job is through accessing the hidden job market— that is, finding a job that has not been posted publicly—because the majority of job leads are never posted. Instead, an employer and job seeker may make contact through personal connections or networks.

You can access the hidden job market through cold calling (a phone call or visit to an employer to inquire about possible job openings, even though none is advertised), asking friends, networking, making volunteer connections, or being at the right place at the right time.

While accessing the hidden job market may require you to be more resourceful, organized, and assertive, it can also provide you with a greater chance of finding employment and a better knowledge of your employer and working conditions. The extra legwork can also put you in tune with what is happening in an industry and provide new leads. You also need to be prepared for some dead-end leads as well as negative responses, but the experience you gain will improve your communication skills. You must always be prepared—you never know when a casual conversation can turn into a formal interview.

Making contact

A great way to access the hidden job market is to directly contact employers or people currently working in your field of interest. One challenge new job seekers experience is finding out exactly what a certain job entails. A job might appear great on paper, but you may not be entirely sure about the day-to-day reality.

One strategy to uncover the reality of a job is to conduct an information interview: that is, you contact a potential employer and arrange to have a brief conversation about a job. This is sort of like background research. It is a way to learn more about a company and position before you actually submit a résumé. This process allows you to know exactly what the job is before you apply. Sometimes, an information interview can turn into a job interview.

In making contact with a potential employer, your communication skills are very important. You want to make a positive first impression. To do so, an effective strategy is to practice before you approach an employer for a meeting.

Here are some guidelines:

Table 1 shows one possible format:

Table 7.1: Contact tracking example
Name Organization Date Contact Info. Notes
Don Miller, Apprentice Coordinator DW Oil & Gas June 2, 2021 (xxx) 455-1234

Spoke to receptionist. Left message for DM.

Should call back by Friday. If no response, email next week. (Normally gets back to people within a week.)

Dave Jameson, Owner Dave’s Electric June 5, 2021 (xxx) 652-2213

Spoke to Dave’s wife, Charlene, who does the books.

They don’t currently have a 1st year apprentice. May be interested. Dave is out of the office until June

Suggested to call after June 18 to see if he is interested in meeting up.

Even if you have made contact with a potential employer who has told you there’s no work, it’s important to keep the name and contact information for that person on file. Maybe you really liked what the person had to say, and you think you might like to call back in three months to see whether any job openings have come up. Sometimes, maintaining regular contact with a potential employer over time can lead to a job because that person remembers your name from having spoken with you recently and on more than one occasion.

The elevator pitch

Who are you? What type of work you are looking for? What skills do you possess that are relevant to your work target? All these questions require thought when you are job searching. You will encounter situations where you are speaking with someone who could be a potential employer but is unfamiliar with your background. Communicating who you are and the skills you possess requires more detail than a single sentence. You need a tightly structured response.

The “elevator pitch” is one way to get started: imagine getting into an elevator in a large office building. In the elevator, you recognize a manager from a company that you want to work for. You are both going up 35 floors—you have some time to introduce yourself and perhaps get a foot in the door with this company. You now have 90 seconds before the elevator reaches your floor to briefly introduce yourself and skills, essentially impressing upon this manager that you would be a great employee for the company.

The 90-second elevator pitch is something you should practice and perfect. It is the basic introduction of who you are and what you are looking for. It will form the basis of your introductory message when networking, your opening statement in telephone contacts with employers, and the foundation of your “Tell me about yourself” answer in an interview.

Most contacts are not looking for your life history. They are looking for a short summary of your skills. Develop a level of comfort in your personal presentation by rehearsing and practicing the delivery of your elevator pitch. You should be able to explain who you are and what you are looking for with confidence.

Step A: Job description

Research an organization and job you are interested in. This may include looking at the company’s website and publications, recent news stories, and any recent job postings.

Step B: Elevator pitch

Structure your elevator pitch (90 seconds) by:

Step C: Evaluating your pitch

The best way to gain confidence is to have others listen to your pitch and provide their feedback, or record your pitch and play it back. Feedback should be based on the following questions:

Dressing the Part for the Interview

Whenever we meet someone for the first time, we make and form a first impression. First impressions are made within the first three seconds of an initial meeting. It doesn’t take long to make one, and yet it can be next to impossible to reverse it. How we dress plays a large role in the first impression that we make. For example, a heavy-equipment operator would be inappropriately dressed if they showed up for an interview wearing a suit or a dress, whereas a person applying for a corporate position would not. In both situations, the person wants to present themself in an appropriate manner. If you’ll be working on a construction site or manufacturing setting, dress ready to work (e.g., clean jeans and an appropriate shirt or T-shirt and steel-toed boots). If you are interviewing for a service company similarly come dressed in a clean button up shirt or plain polo or tee shirt and clean khakis or jeans. Avoid wearing clothing that has offensive language or images on it, is dirty or torn, or is too formal for the type of work you are applying for. An employer wants to be able to picture you on the job when they are interviewing you, whether it be in their uniform in the case of a service company or in work clothing on a construction site. If they cannot picture you doing the work, it will be harder for you to get the job.

Résumés and Cover Letters

Your résumé and cover letter are the two documents that you will use to interest potential employers and let them know why you are the candidate they should shortlist or hire for a job. At times you may be creating these documents from scratch. At other times, you may be provided with online templates or questions that need to be completed and submitted electronically to the employer.

This section reviews how to write a résumé and cover letter. Once you know how to complete these documents from scratch, it is easy to fill out electronic forms and provide the necessary information.


A résumé is a “living” document. Sometimes professionals use the term CV instead of résumé. CV stands for curriculum vitae, meaning “course of life” in Latin.

Because your résumé summarizes your education, employment history, skills, and accomplishments, it will change every time you acquire new knowledge, a new skill, or a new job. In fact, you will likely need to update your résumé after completing this course to highlight your new skills and accomplishments. The résumé tells a potential employer what you can do and have done, who you are, and what you know. It also states what kind of work you’re looking for, so you’ll have to change your résumé depending on the type of job you’re applying for.

The purpose of the résumé is to help you get an interview. The average amount of time an employer takes to scan a résumé is 30 seconds, so how can you make your résumé stand out from the rest? The answer is to create interest. Describe your accomplishments actively and invite the employer to contact you. And be sure to provide enough information for the employer to evaluate your qualifications.

Here are a few résumé guidelines:

There are three main types of resumes: the chronological résumé, the skills-based résumé, and the combination résumé.

Chronological résumé

A chronological résumé lists education, skills, and experience in reverse chronological order (the most recent experience first) with the focus on relevant experience. Chronological résumés are effective when you have a solid work history, and you are applying for a similar type of work as the work history.

Skills-based résumé

A skills-based résumé lists skills and talents in order of importance. This form is more suited to those with limited experience and is therefore particularly popular with students. Skills- based résumés are effective when you have developed skills through school, hobbies, or volunteering, but do not have direct work experience. Skills-based résumés are also effective when changing careers.

Combination résumé

A combination résumé is the most common format and combines prominent skills and relevant experience with the most recent history presented first. The combination format helps you to focus your résumé while providing a detailed work history.

Hints for writing your résumé

Creating a good résumé starts with gathering all the information an employer will want to know about you. Whether you’re creating a brand-new résumé or polishing up an old one, you first need to collect the relevant information.

Once you have gathered all the information for your résumé, the writing begins. Here are a few things to keep in mind:

Although there is no set résumé style that you must follow, it is wise to use a format that is generally accepted and is easy for another person to read. Read through the following three sample résumés. All the samples are acceptable formats. Which one do you prefer?

A résumé with employment experience and education listed in reverse chronological order.
Figure 7.1 Chronological résumé
A résumé that lists a summary of qualifications, a list of relevant skills, and then employment and education history.
Figure 7.2 Skills résumé
A résumé that lists relevant skills and then employment history in reverse chronological order with responsibilities underneath.
Figure 7.3 Combination résumé

Using action verbs in your resume

The following are action verbs that can help you when preparing your resume:










Cover letters

You’ve written a brand new résumé or you’ve polished up an old one. Now what? You need a cover letter to introduce and communicate even more about yourself to a potential employer.

An exceptional cover letter is the key to getting your résumé read. The cover letter is a tightly written advertisement about you: the person who is applying for that particular job. It includes a description of:

A cover letter accompanies your résumé when you apply for a job. Where a résumé may be considered generic enough to be easily adapted to several jobs, a cover letter is very specific and tailored for each job for which you apply. Therefore, it needs to be modified for each employer. The cover letter introduces you to a prospective employer and should make them interested enough to invite you for an interview. It is important to always send a cover letter even if you have spoken with the employer in person or by phone.

The cover letter includes:

It gives you the opportunity to highlight the skills in your résumé that are especially relevant to the job.

In the cover letter, be sure to do all of the following:

The following examples show a model for writing a cover letter and an example.

Cover letter model

Your name
Your present address
City, province, postal code

Date of writing

Name of the person responsible for hiring
Title of the person
Name of organization and address
City, province, postal code

Dear (Name person responsible for hiring):

Re: Subject (a subject line is optional; normally you would list the name/reference #)

Opening Paragraph
Introduce why you are writing. Name the position to which you are applying. Make sure you say how you heard of the opening (newspaper, job ad online, colleague) and why you are interested in the position and the organization.

Second Paragraph
Refer the reader to your enclosed résumé providing additional information concerning your background and interests. Demonstrate to the employer how your interests, education, and experience fit the job requirements. Describe one or two important qualifications you believe are of greatest interest to the employer, keeping in mind your audience: the employer. If you have related experience or specialized training, point it out. Don’t make the common mistake of saying, “I’d like a position so I can gain experience in my field”; show the employer what you will be able to do for the organization.

Last Paragraph
Close by thanking the reader for reviewing your résumé and by making a specific request for an interview. Remember to indicate that you will either phone for a personal appointment or that you can be reached at the stated telephone number (include it here for easy reference). Make sure your closing is clear and suggests a specific action.


(your handwritten signature)

Type your name here

Cover letter example

Type your textbox content here.

September 16, 2015

Edna Wagnall
HR Manager
Srateher Electric
1234 Pile Drive
Victoria, BC V8G 5H5

Re: Electrical Apprentice – Position SE-0135

Dear Ms. Wagnall:

Please accept my résumé to the position of Level 1 Electrical Apprentice as advertised with on Tuesday November 15, 2015. The combination of my experience and training makes me an ideal candidate for this position.

I recently completed the Electrical Foundation program at Camosun College. I’ve worked summers and weekends for the past three years for Harbour and Sons Electric, working in the store, managing customer billing, and assisting on job sites with the electricians and their apprentices. I enjoy working as part of a team and taking on new challenges and look forward to furthering my career as an Electrical Apprentice.

I believe that I would be an asset to your company and hope to have the opportunity to discuss this with you further in an interview. I can be contacted by phone at (250) 210-2121 to arrange a meeting. Thank you for your time in considering my application, and I look forward in speaking with you soon.


Alex MacDonald

Review cover letter

Once you’ve drafted your cover letter, it is important to review it to make sure that you’ve addressed all points in the job posting and have created a clear and concise letter, free of spelling and grammatical errors. The following checklist can assist you with this task.

  1. Check content (Have you done what you set out to do?)
    • Does your cover letter address all of the key points/job requirements listed in the job posting?
    • Is your résumé up to date? For example, are the employers or job functions you’ve listed in your cover letter in your résumé?
    • Are there any unnecessary details in your letter or résumé that should be deleted? For example, as you gain more experience in your trade, some of your previous work experience may no longer be relevant and can be deleted from your résumé. As a general rule, a résumé can include 10 to 15 years of prior relevant experience.
  2.  Check language (Is it easy to follow?)
    • Are there any unnecessary words that need to be deleted?
    • Are there transitions from one idea to the next?
    • Are your sentences properly constructed?
    • Are the words you selected accurate and specific? Don’t hesitate to look up a word in the dictionary if you are not sure if it is being used correctly.
  3. Check format
    • Do your documents (cover letter and résumé) follow the suggested format (or another recognized format)?
    • If you use a subject line in your cover letter, does the title reflect the job posting? (Note: Some job descriptions require that you include the job posting number and job title in a subject line.)
    • Do you have a new paragraph every time you change to a new idea?
    • Did you include your name and the date?
    • Did you use only one side of the page? In general, résumés and cover letters should not be double sided.
    • Are your fonts and font sizes consistent throughout your documents?
  4. Check grammar, punctuation, and spelling
    1. Grammar:
      • Do all subjects and verbs agree?
      • Are the verb tenses consistent and correct?
    2. Punctuation:
      • Are apostrophes used with all possessive nouns?
      • Does each sentence begin with a capital and finish with end punctuation?
      • Are proper names capitalized?
      • Are quotation marks used correctly where appropriate?
    3. Spelling:
      • Did you use spell check to catch obvious spelling errors?
      • Did you read through the document manually to ensure that the spell check changes are correct? (Never rely on the automated spell check only to proofread your documents.)
      • Did you manually look up difficult or confusing words in the dictionary?

The Job Interview

A well-written cover letter and résumé may get your foot in the door, but it’s the interview that will secure you the job. The interview allows you to verbally communicate who you are and what you can do. In addition to the skills you listed in your résumé, your verbal skills, thinking skills, and social interaction skills are on stage in the interview.

The interview is an exchange of information between an employer and a potential employee. A job interview allows an employer to get to know you as a person and to:

A job interview allows you to:

The interview process usually involves a short meeting (15 to 30 minutes) during which the employer will ask a variety of questions. These can range from very general—such as an overview of your work history—to the very specific, such as explaining a skill or knowledge set listed in your résumé. Being able to communicate well by answering questions effectively is an essential part of securing a job.

You might also be asked questions about what you would do in a certain situation, or to elaborate on a past experience. These kinds of questions and queries are called behavioural interview strategies. They help the interviewer evaluate your ability to solve problems and handle mistakes. They usually begin with phrases such as:

Other typical interview questions are:

Practicing for the interview

It is important that you feel confident when answering interview questions. Too often people think they can memorize answers, and then under the pressure of the interview, they forget and lose focus. Rather than memorizing answers, it is a good idea to formulate a strategy to answer questions. One way to approach an answer is outlined below. Take note of the three parts to the answer.

Sample Question: What are your strongest skills?

Typical questions

The following are some typical questions that get asked in interviews. Read through each question and take some time to think about what your most appropriate response would be. It is helpful to practice with the three-part approach so that you will be able to address most questions in your interview without hesitation and have a strategy to address any new questions that you haven’t prepared for.

Hint: Try answering these questions with a specific job opening in mind. Include relevant information you have researched about the company in some of your answers.

  1. Tell me something about yourself.
    The interviewer is trying to find out what kind of person you are, not merely about your job skills. Mention your personal strengths, interests, and abilities.
  2. Why do you want to work here?
    The interviewer wants to make sure that you’ll be satisfied with the job and likely to stay. This question also demonstrates if you have researched the company. Share what you learned about the job, the company, and the industry through you own research. Talk about how your professional skills will benefit the company.
  3. Why did you leave your last job?
    The interviewer is trying to determine whether you had previous work problems. Don’t say anything negative about your previous company or supervisor. Simply give an appropriate reason, such as you relocated away from job; company went out of business; temporary job; no possibility of advancement; or wanted a job better suited to your skills.
    Hint: In the interview, keep answers straightforward and concise. Try to keep answers to less than two minutes long.
  4. What are your long-range career goals/objectives?
    The interviewer wants to know if your plans and the company’s goals are compatible. Talk about new experiences or responsibilities you’d like to add in the future that build on the current job you are applying for.
  5. What do you consider to be your greatest strengths and weaknesses?
    If you have researched the organization, you should have an idea of what skills or qualities the company values. Use examples to illustrate your positive qualities and how they apply to work. In discussing weaknesses, talk about things that you recognize and have taken steps to improve.
  6. What wage are you expecting?
    Instead of stating a certain amount, ask the interviewer to discuss the company and the approximate pay range for the position. It is important to know what the current wage is for the position; you can find salary surveys at the library or on the Internet or check the classified ads to see what comparable jobs in your area are paying. This information can help you negotiate your wage once the employer makes you an offer.
  7. Do you prefer to work alone or with others?
    The interviewer wants to get a sense of your ability to get along well with others. Discuss the advantages of working in a group and be prepared to give concrete examples of your experience of teamwork.
    Hint: Avoid one-word answers, such as “yes” or “no.” Provide an example whenever possible.
  8. Under what circumstances do you work best?
    The interviewer may be indicating that the job can be stressful. Talk about several examples where you met deadlines and show how capable you were of rising to the occasion.
  9. What are your hobbies?
    The interviewer may be looking for evidence of job skills outside of your work experience or may simply be curious about your life outside of work. Employees who have creative or athletic outlets for their stress are often healthier, happier, and more productive.
  10. What contributions do you see yourself making to this job/company?
    Offer examples of actions you took and the positive results you obtained. Show how this ability transfers from your previous position to the new job/company.

Here is a list of additional interview questions you may encounter and may want to prepare answers for:

Inappropriate interview questions

Some interview questions may not be relevant, can be considered discriminatory and you will have to decide whether to answer them. These can include:

Under the law, you do not have to answer these questions, and you may want to ask how the question is relevant to the position. This can show an employer’s biases and can spur you as an interviewee to make decisions on whether the employers values align with your own.  If you do not want to answer a question because it makes you uncomfortable and you feel it doesn’t concern the job, you can answer by saying, “Sorry, I’m not comfortable answering that question.”  Being asked inappropriate questions by an employer may influence whether you choose to take the job if offered to you following the interview.

Questions you can ask

To be perceived as an active participant in the interview process and to show your interest in the company, you can also ask questions. In fact, it is very important that you take the time during the interview to ask questions yourself. You don’t want to take a job that will not suit you (i.e., hours of work or benefits that may be unacceptable). You also want to be clear about what is expected of you so you can be prepared. Accepting a job and quitting shortly after can harm your professional reputation, especially if you live in a small community.

Some questions you can ask include:

What employers are looking for

Now that you have had an opportunity to think about questions and put yourself into an interview frame of mind, consider what else an employer is looking for. Consider the following points:

Interview summary

The interview is an opportunity for you to get to know your potential employer in person and for your potential employer to get to know you! Interviews let you ask detailed questions about the job for which you are applying, which will let you and your interview panel know if you’re the right person for the position. Effective communication is an essential skill during the job interview.

Make sure you know something about the organization for which you are applying. When you first greet the employer, introduce yourself cordially, and try not to be nervous. Pay attention to your body language and make sure that your appearance is professional.

In many cases during an interview, you will be asked to explain how you would respond to very particular situations where some kind of a conflict may be involved (behavioural interview strategies). One way to prepare for interviews is to anticipate the kinds of questions that you will be asked and to rehearse responses. You can formulate answers based on the facts about who you are, provide examples that support your opinion, and provide a rationale for how your response relates to the job for which you are applying.

After you’ve had the interview and are waiting for a phone call, is there anything else you can do? Yes! Thanking the person who interviewed you is one way to set yourself apart from other candidates. Write a positive, enthusiastic letter thanking your interviewer and restating your interest in the position.

Thank-You Emails/Letters

Writing a thank-you email or letter is a step that many interviewees overlook but which can play an important role in helping you to secure the job. This small but thoughtful gesture can set you apart from other applicants, particularly when competition is high.

A thank-you letter or email:

Which format?

Think of the thank-you letter as the concluding paragraph in a composition. Your cover letter is your introductory paragraph that states your purpose in applying for a job. The résumé and interview are your body paragraphs that expand the points outlined in your cover letter. The thank-you letter is your closing, restating your interest in the position and confirming why you are the best applicant for the job.

A thank-you letter can be written in the form of a business letter, a handwritten note, or an email. The business letter is the most formal. Handwritten notes are more personal, but they can be perceived as less polished and professional and therefore are not usually recommended. Email is appropriate when that has been your means of communication with the person you want to thank, or if your contact has expressed a preference for email. The important point to consider is the nature of the organization to which you are applying.

Of the three options, a business letter or email are likely the best. The letter or email allows you to further showcase your writing, editing, and communication skills, and provides the space needed to include details about your skills for the job.

Business thank-you letters

Generally, your thank-you letter should include the following information:

The following is an example of a business thank-you letter.

Robert Smithson
5748 Evergreen Terrace
Vancouver, BC V8R 2H5
Ph: (604) 482-0945

November 24, 2005

Mr. Bob Wignall
4573 Lincoln Street
Burnaby, BC V71 R3T

Dear Mr. Wignall:

Allow me to take this opportunity to thank you for meeting with me last Thursday. I would like to further restate my interest in joining your company as an auto body technician apprentice. As we discussed in our interview, I am currently in my third year of studies as an auto body apprentice at BCIT with two years’ experience as an auto body assistant, and I am fully capable of performing the technician’s work we discussed. I eagerly await more challenges that you may feel are a good fit to my current skill set.

I feel this apprentice position would be a perfect fit for my current skill set and I look forward to working with your team of technicians to further fine tune my skills in auto body.

If you require further information please do not hesitate to contact me at (604) 482-0945. Thank you for your time, Mr. Wignall. I look forward to hearing from you soon.


Robert Smithson

Thank-you emails

If you choose to email your thank-you note, it is important to have a business-like writing style. Here are some conventions to follow:

The following is a sample thank-you email.

Subject: Position of Labourer/Tool Room Assistant

Dear Ms. Jones:

Thank you for interviewing me for the position of labourer/tool room assistant at Malouf Contracting. This job is an excellent fit for my skills and interests. Your company’s social responsibility and philosophy of building green reinforced my desire to work with your organization.

In addition to my trade qualifications, I have a strong background in customer service. I am enthusiastic, enjoy working in teams, and am always ready to take on new challenges. After meeting with you, I understand how this role fits into Malouf’s organization and the importance of being able to perform a variety of different functions at any given time. I believe that I’m the right candidate to fulfill this role.

I appreciate the time you took to interview me. I am very interested in working with your organization and look forward to hearing from you regarding this position. Please don’t hesitate to contact me if you have any further questions.


Jessica Smith

(250) 555-6789


Self-test icon.Now complete the Learning Task Self-Test.


Self-Test 7

  1. The importance of first impressions cannot be understated.
    1. True
    2. False
  2. What are the two main sources of job leads?
    1. Friends and family
    2. Head-hunters and company websites
    3. Visible job market and hidden job market
    4. Advertisements online and in newspapers
  3. Reading skills and understanding special vocabulary related to the industry/job are important to understanding the visible job market.
    1. True
    2. False
  4. Knowing how to scan job ads has no effect on the amount of time you spend searching for a job online or in newspapers.
    1. True
    2. False
  5. Through which means can the hidden job market be accessed?
    1. Associations and networking
    2. Cold calling, friends, and family connections
    3. All of the above
    4. None of the above
  6. An information interview should be conducted for every job you are interested in.
    1. True
    2. False
  7. How much time and effort does accessing the hidden job market require, compared with the visible job market?
    1. Less time and effort
    2. More time and effort
    3. The same amount of time and effort
    4. It’s hard to tell.
  8. What do you do if a potential employer refuses to meet with you?
    1. Send all your questions to the company via their general email address.
    2. Go to the company personally and introduce yourself to the main receptionist and see if they can answer your questions or find someone who is willing to do so.
    3. Go through the company directory and contact other individuals until you find someone to meet with you.
    4. Be polite, accept “no” as their answer, and thank them for their time. Use their website and other sources of information to find out more about the company.
  9. The “elevator pitch” is a strategy to let a potential employer know about you and why you’d like to work at their company in a very short period of time.
    1. True
    2. False
  10. What are the three main types of résumés?
    1. Summary, detailed, and extensive
    2. Extended, chronological, and skills-based
    3. Summary, chronological, and combination
    4. Chronological, skills-based, and combination
  11. You should always use action verbs in your résumé.
    1. True
    2. False
  12. In general, a cover letter should always be written for every job application.
    1. True
    2. False
  13. What kind of information should be in your covering letter?
    1. The exact same information as in your résumé
    2. Information about your expectations of the job
    3. Information about your personality and interests
    4. The issues addressed in the job posting in order to encourage the reader to look further at your application
  14. The quality of my cover letter and résumé has no impact on my hiring process.
    1. True
    2. False
  15. All individuals with the necessary qualifications will be interviewed.
    1. True
    2. False
  16. Practicing for the interview and acquiring feedback on your performance is a good way to ensure that you are prepared and that you reduce stress the day of the real interview.
    1. True
    2. False
  17. There is a set of questions that most employers will typically ask.
    1. True
    2. False
  18. Which of the following are employers not looking for in an interview?
    1. Good first impression
    2. Overconfidence in your abilities
    3. Optimistic and knowledgeable about their company
    4. Showing up dressed appropriately and ready to work on the job
  19. Questions about your personal attributes (e.g., weight, height, age, religion, sexuality) are not relevant and can be skipped over politely.
    1. True
    2. False
  20. The behavioural interview strategy includes asking how you would respond in a particular situation where there is some kind of conflict.
    1. True
    2. False
  21. Thank-you emails or letters are optional following an interview.
    1. True
    2. False
  22. When writing a cover letter, you should use “I” rather than “you” statements.
    1. True
    2. False
  23. When addressing a cover letter, you should base the title and pronouns you use on whether the addressee has a feminine or masculine name.
    1. True
    2. False
  24. It is best to keep things simple during an interview and use “yes” or “no” answers whenever possible.
    1. True
    2. False
  25. Adding “References available on request” to the end of a resume or cover letter is sufficient until you receive an interview.
    1. True
    2. False

See the Answer Key in the back matter of the textbook for self-test answers.

Media Attributions



Click play on the following audio player to listen along as you read this section.

Thumbnail for the embedded element "Summary"

A BCcampus element has been excluded from this version of the text. You can view it online here:

In this competency we have provided you with an overview of the trends affecting employment in the Canadian economy and the information necessary to conduct further research on your own. We have described employer expectations and job satisfaction and looked at the importance of hard skills and soft skills and their relevance to successful employment. This includes an understanding of essential skills and their importance to employer productivity and competitiveness. We have also looked at employee expectations and how it is important that they align with the needs of the employer. We have looked at stress management, problem solving, and decision making. We have also provided all of the information necessary for you to conduct job searches, write effective résumés and cover letters, apply for positions, and prepare for interviews.

After completing the Learning Tasks in this Competency, you will understand that obtaining employment in your chosen field will require considerable work on your part, whether it be researching the job market and individual companies or preparing for interviews. As a potential new employee, it is your responsibility to develop the skills required to promote your strengths and qualifications to prospective employers. Your ability to meet your employer’s organizational requirements, goals, and expectations through continuous learning will open up additional employment opportunities as you gain experience in your trade.

Media Attributions


Answer Key

Self-Test 1

  1. a. True
  2. a. True
  3. b. The ability to compete in a global market, a shortage of workers with specific credentials, and a skills gap
  4. b. False
  5. a. True
  6. d. All of the above
  7. b. False
  8. a. True
  9. b. False
  10. a. True
  11. a. True
  12. d. Document use
  13. a. True
  14. a. True
  15. a. Equity
  16. b. Equality
  17. c. Intersectionality
  18. a. 5%
  19. d. All of the above
  20. a. True

Self-Test 2

  1. c. In the interview process
  2. a. True
  3. c. The ability to work well under pressure
  4. c. Being fluently bilingual (English-French)
  5. b. False
  6. d. Increased flexibility, entrepreneurship, and work-life
  7. a. True
  8. c. All of the above
  9. c. Ability to determine your working hours
  10. a. True

Self-Test 3

  1. a. True
  2. b. False
  3. b. False
  4. d. Individuals are considerate, inclusive, and supportive of one another.
  5. c. All of the above
  6. c. Consider the impact of words or actions and how they affect others
  7. d. All of the above
  8. a. True
  9. b. False
  10. b. Polices and reinforces heterosexual gender norms

Self-Test 4

  1. a. True
  2. b. False
  3. a. True
  4. c. Respect and understanding
  5. a. True
  6. a. Taking sole responsibility for a decision made by a colleague or team
  7. b. False
  8. c. Mindful of the business relationship and respectful at all times
  9. d. Listened to, documented, and brought forward to the appropriate individual according to company policy and procedures
  10. c. Inclusive

Self-Test 5

  1. b. False
  2. a. True
  3. c. All of the above
  4. a. True
  5. b. False
  6. a. True
  7. c. Be assertive and discuss the issues with the appropriate individual(s).
  8. a. True
  9. c. All of the above
  10. d. Seek help from a trained professional and get the help you need.
  11. a. True
  12. a. True
  13. b. Go to the bar and drink.
  14. d. Look at how you work and determine if there is room for improvement or increased efficiency.
  15. a. True
  16. b. False
  17. a. True
  18. a. qualified counselor
  19. a. True
  20. a. True

Self-Test 6

  1. d. Everyone. It is part of everyday life whether you are at home or at work.
  2. a. True
  3. d. Find out who is responsible for the problem so that you can assign blame.
  4. a. True
  5. b. False
  6. c. All of the above
  7. b. False
  8. c. All of the above
  9. a. True
  10. d. Be prepared for the worst and hope for the best.
  11. c. Don’t make it personal
  12. a. True
  13. a. Make sure you have all the facts
  14. b. Give yourself time to reflect
  15. c. Use good communication techniques

Self-Test 7

  1. a. True
  2. c. Visible job market and hidden job market
  3. a. True
  4. b. False
  5. c. All of the above
  6. b. False
  7. b. More time and effort
  8. d. Be polite, accept “no” as their answer, and thank them for their time. Use their website and other sources of information to find out more about the company.
  9. a. True
  10. d. Chronological, skills-based, and combination
  11. a. True
  12. a. True
  13. d. The issues addressed in the job posting in order to encourage the reader to look further at your application
  14. b. False
  15. b. False
  16. a. True
  17. a. True
  18. b. Overconfidence in your abilities
  19. a. True
  20. a. True
  21. a. True
  22. a. True
  23. b. False
  24. b. False
  25. b. False



Preston, P. (2015). Innovation and technology—Increasing Canadian competitiveness (Recorded webinar). Ottawa, ON: The Conference Board of Canada.

Statistics Canada. (2010). Projections of the diversity of the Canadian population. Retrieved from

Statistics Canada. (2011). Immigration and ethnocultural diversity in Canada. Retrieved from

Stuckey, J., & Munro, D. (2014) Skills for success: Developing skills for a prosperous B.C. Ottawa, ON: The Conference Board of Canada.

Canadian Apprenticeship Forum. (2020) National strategy for supporting women in the trades [PDF]. Retrieved from:

Canadian Apprenticeship Forum. (2019) Promoting careers in the skilled trades to Indigenous youth in Canada [PDF].  Retrieved from:


Acknowledgements (1st Edition)

BCcampus would like to acknowledge the following individuals and organizations for their contributions in producing the Trades Access Common Core open textbook resources.


Camosun College

Open School BC

Industry Training Authority of BC

The ITA works with employers, employees, industry, labour, training providers, and government to issue credentials, manage apprenticeships, set program standards, and increase opportunities in approximately 100 BC trades. Among its many functions are oversight of the development of training resources that align with program standards, outlines, and learning objectives, and authorizing permission to utilize these resources (text and images).

Publishing Services, Queen’s Printer

Intellectual Property Program

Ilona Ugro, Copyright Officer, Ministry of Technology, Innovation and Citizens’ Services, Province of British Columbia


Versioning History

This page provides a record of edits and changes made to this book since its initial publication. Whenever edits or updates are made in the text, we provide a record and description of those changes here. If the change is minor, the version number increases by 0.01. If the edits involve substantial updates, the version number increases to the next full number.

The files posted by this book always reflect the most recent version. If you find an error in this book, please fill out the Report an Open Textbook Error form.

Version Date Change Details
1.00 2015 Book published.
2.00 2021 Second edition published. See About the Book for a list of changes in the second edition.